What are the 3 key elements of medical decision making?

Decision-making in nursing pdf

In view of the importance that this concept has acquired in our environment, special Argentine laws have been pronouncing on the matter, expressing that the information to be provided must be “clear, precise and adequate” and stating the aspects to which it must refer (art. 59 of the Civil and Commercial Code of the Nation -CCyCN- and art. 5º, law 26.529, among others), with scopes that are difficult to make compatible with the practice of a socialized and technified medicine, whose times of care per patient present specific limits.

As regards the second aspect, in the Argentine civil system, the declaration of will given by reason of informed consent must comply with certain internal and external requirements in order for the act to be considered voluntary. In order for the consent to come from a voluntary act, the internal and external elements must concur. Normally, the manifestation of will corresponds to the internal elements that form it; when this is not the case, a choice must be made and it must be determined which elements must prevail.

What are the factors that influence medical decision making?

There is a perception that some organizational factors (daily demand, costs) have an important influence on the physician’s decision-making capacity. The figure of the expert, together with scientific information and textbooks, appear as the main sources of information.

What are the decisions of a physician?

Medical decision making attempts to solve the mystery involved in disease. Physicians are increasingly aware of the need to study decision theory, but few of us do so, and fewer of us apply it. In a sense, the study of decisions has been based on what should be, not what is.

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How is decision making in a hospital?

Clinical decision making is the process used by healthcare professionals that affects their patients, an enormously broad and diverse concept that ranges from diagnosis to treatment, including many other aspects related to healthcare activity.

Health Management Decision Making

It is so common to encounter a decompensated diabetic patient who requires the use of insulin. At first glance it looks so easy, just follow an algorithm and calculate the dosage. However, when one realizes that the patient has difficulty cooking, lives alone and has no support networks, the algorithm becomes one of the many other factors to consider in the management of that patient. In these cases we have several courses of action that are reasonable, and most of the time we are the ones who add those factors to our calculator and offer what we think is best for that patient. Now, what if we share the calculator with the patient and decide between the two of us what is the best option for the patient?

One of the inalienable principles of our healthcare model is patient-centered care, which is the care provided by a healthcare professional when he or she ascertains and delimits the health needs and problems of his or her patients as individuals belonging to a community. In this care, a shared vision of the best preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic strategy is achieved, based on the best scientific evidence available to the professional community.2 Shared decision making (SDM) is framed in this context and seeks to involve the patient together with the physician in making decisions about his or her disease.3

How to recognize that the information is reliable for decision making?

Search, compare and review… and use the advanced search. Look at who writes the information. Try to see the author’s credentials and reputation. Be aware of the medium in which the content is published in case there could be any kind of bias in the information or advertising.

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What should be considered in making an intelligent decision about whether or not to have sex?

If you decide to have sex, it is important that you have information about birth control, infections, and emotions or feelings. Decisions about when to become sexually active, how to protect yourself against STIs, and how to avoid pregnancy are up to you.

What is decision making in healthcare?

Public health decision-making is a process that involves governments being able to continuously respond to changing circumstances, anticipating emerging threats and identifying ways to control them.

Support in decision making rationale

A CDSS is based on providing the physician, patient or any individual with specific and intelligently processed information at the right time to support or improve the clinical decision-making process and thus ensure better patient care. Therefore, a good CDSS should provide evidence-based, context-relevant information to guide the actions of healthcare professionals and, most importantly, be integrated into their workflow.

Once we have the right information, it must be provided to the right people when they need it. Health decision support systems must present the information to the people who can take action on it.  In this context, the appropriate people may be physicians, nurses, or the patient himself.

None of the above steps is meaningful if the information is not available at the time it is needed. Accessibility and availability of information is essential to ensure reliability in the decision-making process. It also increases patient safety.

What are decision support systems?

Decision support systems (DSS) are interactive computer systems that assist decision makers by using data and models to solve unstructured problems” (Spraguey Carlson).

What are decision support systems?

A Decision Support System (DSS) is a computer system that supports the decision making process, which involves the use of data and models for the generation, estimation, evaluation and/or systematic comparison of alternatives, and the use of data and models for the …

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What is a clinical decision?

Physician’s decision regarding the patient’s diagnosis or treatment.

Importance of decision making in the health sector

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines “adherence” as “the degree to which a person’s behavior – taking medication, following a diet and making lifestyle changes – corresponds to the agreed recommendations of a health care provider.

Therapeutic non-adherence is the tool used to quantify the extent to which a patient does or does not follow medical instructions, which implies a lack of acceptance of a diagnosis and its impact on prognosis; when adherence to instructions is negative, prognosis worsens and outcomes may be unfavorable.

Although behavioral factors such as food consumption patterns, smoking or physical activity influence the prognosis of such diseases, medication is a key factor in preventing disease progression, so continued adherence (persistence) to medical treatment (medication, lifestyle and diet) is required to achieve adequate long-term control, prevent complications and decrease morbidity and mortality rates.